Ancient city of Teos which is known today as Sigacik, located 80km north of Kusadasi and 60km south west of Izmir.
The first inhabitance dates back to 10th century BC. The first settlers were Greek colonizers who left mainland Greece due Dor attacks. The legendary founder was named as Athamas. Therefore before the usage of the name Teos, the city was known as Athamias refering to 'the city of Athamas'. These colonisers were folllowed by Ionians who founded 12 cities at the western part of Anatolia. Teos became one of the Ioanic cities. The area where Teos is located was in the middle of the province of Ionia. The 12 ionic cities were Miletos, Myus, Priene, Ephesus, Kolophon, Lebedos, Teos, Klazomenae, Phocaea, Samos, Khios, Erythrai. Smyrna was an Aiolian city which became an Ionian later years. The 12 ionic cities founded a federation named as ''Panionion''. All these Ionic cities were related to each other. The federation became a major power against Persian attacks and became famous with seatrade and mining. 6th cetury BC, Thales of Miletus suggested Teos to be the capital of Ionic federation since the city of located in the mid of the 12 Ionic cities.
Teos and Ionia was under the rule of Lydians in the 7th century BC and attacked by the Persians in 6th BC. Ionic federation had an alliance with Athens and Greek Isles against the Persian attacks. This alliance was named as Attica-Delos Alliance. Especially in 494 BC the Battle of Lade was the most notable battle of Ionia. According to Herodotus, Teos joined the battle with 17 ships. Out of 353 ships of Attica-Delos alliance 17 of them were from Teos, 80 of them from Miletus and 12 of them from Priene, They fought against 600 Persian ships. The war ended with the defeat of the Ionians. Persians invaded Teos, some of the inhabitants of Teos left the area and colonized Abdera, located at the Thrakia region of Greece.
Archaeologists discovered coins having Griffins on them. They are thinking that Griffins were connected with Dionysus, the patron god of Teos. Dionysos is the god of entrainment, art and wine. The priests of Dionysos were considered as theatrical actors. The Dionysos Temple in Teos was the largest Dionysos Temple in Anatolia. The temple and the city of Teos was the meeting place of the actors and musicians. The temple of Dionysos was founded in Teos in the 3rd century BC. The actors were a guild who provided paid performances at the cities. Teos was their sacred city and center. These actors were considered as the priests of Dionysos, they had some form of a religous background which gave them some priviledges. But sometimes these priveledges caused some trouble for them and they were forced to move. They were considered by the public as problem causers in some occasions. In 152BC due to some problems they caused, the actors were expelled from Teos and went to Ephesus. They were not liked by the Ephesians also. Today visitors can see the remains of Temple of Dionysos. The temple was destroyed many times by earthquakes, the remains visible today from the time of Roman Emperor Hadrian. Roman architect Vitrivius mentions about this temple in his books. According to Vitrivius in the 3rd century BC, temple was built by the architect Hermogenes from Priene. There is a similarity with Temple of Athena built by famous architect Pytheos in Priene and Temple of Dionysos in Teos. Most probably Hermogenes was one of the students of Phytheos and inspired by his teachers works. The temple was peripteros style 6 by 11 columns.
For the last 4 years, Teos has been excavated by the Turkish Archaeologists. A lot work and funding is needed. Visitors shouls not have high expectations.
The modern town of Teos is known as Sigacik. In the 16th century during the battles with knights of St. John, Suleyman the Magnificent the Ottoman Emperor ordered a fort. The town became a naval base for the control of the trade routes. The area is known with olives and tangerines. Lots of organic agriculture are given incentives by the government. On sundays there is an organic farmers market in the town center. Sigacik became the member of ''Cittaslow''. A concept of living in quite and slow cities instead of the noises of big cities. There is a marina for the sailboats and fresh fish restaurants.
Archaeologists have been excavating the bouleterion and the theater. Majority of the reamains of the theater were used by the Ottomans for the construction of a medeaval castle. Therefore the size of theater still not known. The size of the bouleterion was 850 people. It was located right next to the Agora. The foundation of the bouleterion is from 2nd century BC. In the time of Hadrian major restorations were made. An inscription discovered mentioning meetings regarding the pirate attacks to Teos in the 3rd century BC. A libraryand a gymanasium is searched in the area.
Teos is surrounded by 6km city walls. The city was also known with marble quarries. Major marble export was made to Rome. Marble from Teos was named as Africano referring to black slaves working at the quarries. In some sources this marble is also named as Luculleum refering to Roman General and consul Lucullus who introduced this marble type to Rome. Africano from Teos had its main use between the times of Augustus and the Antonines, and the quarry itself fell into disuse about 170 AD.
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