Magnesia Gate (South Gate) & East Gymnasium
Ephesus has two main entrances as Koressos & Magnesia. One is the Magnesia Gate which is located at the South of the city. Since the gates are facing to the way to the city of Magnesia, they named the gate as "Magnesia Gate". City of Magnesia was located 8 miles south of Ephesus. A Greek race called Magnets founded the city and named the city as Magnesia meaning the land of Magnets. Magnets of Magnesia used to attack Ephesus. Due to the threath coming from Magnesia. The gates are named as Magnesia Gate. According to some sources, one day an ancient Philosopher called Thales went to the city of Magnesia and when he saw 2 iron ored stones repelling each other. He gave the name magnet to these iron ored stones.
Magnesia Gate was a triumphal arch gate. The middle arch was the largest for the vehicles to pass through. Next stands the east Gymnasium. Gymnasiums were the Roman Schools. East Gymnasium of the city is named also as the Girls Gymnassium. Archeologists excavated statues of women in this site. Gymnassiums were schools only for the boys. Having statues of girls caused a suspicioun among the archelogists. The building consists of an auditorium for ceremonies and conferences, bathing rooms, boutiques, a stadium. Bathing rooms were classified as 4 sections. Apodyterium for changing rooms, Frigidarium for cold bathing, Calderium for hot bathing, Tepidaruim for tepid room.
Gymnasiums were for boys between 7-15. The teachers used to be called as Pedagogos where the English word Pedagog is also originated from. The goal of education was to be an effective speaker. In early Roman days, a Roman boy's education took place at home. If his father could read and write, he taught his son to do the same. The father instructed his sons in Roman law, history, customs, and physical training, to prepare for war. Reverence for the gods, respect for law, obedience to authority, and truthfulness were the most important lessons to be taught. Girls were taught by their mother. Girls learned to spin, weave, and sew. At the age 12 or 13, the boys of the upper classes attended grammar school, where they studied Latin, Greek, grammar, and literature. At the age of 16, some boys went on to study public speaking at the rhetoric school, to prepare for a life as an orator. A boy became a citizen at age 16 or 17.Coming of age, becoming a citizen, was quite a celebration. On a boy's sixteenth or seventeenth birthday, the boy dressed himself in a white tunic, which his father adjusted. The day ended with a dinner party, given by the father, in honor of the new Roman citizen.
A sacred way of 1 mile linked Temple of Artemis with the Magnesia Gate. The sacred way was covered to protect the pilgrims from the rain. Temple of Artemis was a major pilgrimage site. From different parts of Roman Empire pagans came to Ephesus for pilgrimage.
Behind the upper parking lot a burial is located known as the Grave of St. Luke, one of the writers of the Gospel. There is no evidence if he was buried here. This building may have served as a Herroon. From the carved cross figures and an ox head depiction on the stones, archeogists named the burial as Grave
of Luke. There is no scientific proof if Luke ever came to Ephesus. Luke was one of the Gospel writers, a doctor, writer of the Acts section of New Testament and a companion of Paul. There is a high possibility that Luke may arrived to the city of Ephesus with Paul in year 53 AD. We see the mention of Luke in the last letter of Paul to Timothy. Timothy was another companion of Paul that 2 letters were sent by Paul to him while Paul was prisoned in Rome. Before he got executed the last letter of Paul was Timothy 2. Paul mentioned that Luke was prisoned with him. There is a possibility that Luke may came back to Ephesus and died in Ephesus.
4: 9-11a - Do your best to come to me as soon as you can. Demas, loving this present world, I fear, has left me and gone to Thessalonica. Crescens has gone to Galatia, and Titus is away in Dalmatia. Only Luke is with me now.